Admiral Nelson bezeichnet folgende Personen: Horatio Nelson, 1. Viscount Nelson (–), britischer Admiral. Admiral Nelson ist der Name folgender. Horatio Nelson: Triumph und Tragik eines Seeheldens | Jann M Witt | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf . Horatio Nelson, 1. Viscount Nelson, 1. Baron Nelson, KB, Herzog von Bronte (* September in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, England; † Oktober Erst als er am In Fortentwicklung bereits erfolgreicher britischer Manöver Schlacht von Les Saintes plante Nelson jedoch, die gegnerische Schiffslinie mit zwei Schlachtreihen von der Seite senkrecht zu durchbrechen. Gemälde der HMS "Victory". Die Kämpfe dauerten vom In anderen Projekten Commons. Das dürfte nicht übertrieben sein. Die Homepage wurde aktualisiert. Die aus Gold, Silber, Edelsteinen und feinen Stoffen bestehende Ladung sollte als Geschenk der französischen Regierung an verschiedene indische Fürsten dazu dienen, diese bei ihrem Aufstand gegen die Briten zu unterstützen. Noch heute feiert ihn die Royal Navy alljährlich mit einem Dinner und einem Toast: Oktober , einem Montag. Heute liegt die "Victory" im Hafen von Portsmouth.
When Villeneuve set sail from Ferrol on 10 August, he was under orders from Napoleon to sail northward toward Brest.
This ended the immediate threat of invasion. The same month, Nelson returned home to Britain after two years of duty at sea.
On 15 August, Cornwallis decided to detach 20 ships of the line from the fleet guarding the English Channel and to have them sail southward to engage the enemy forces in Spain.
Nelson joined the fleet on 28 September to take command. At this point, Nelson's fleet badly needed provisioning. These ships were later diverted for convoy duty in the Mediterranean , although Nelson had expected them to return.
Other British ships continued to arrive, and by 15 October the fleet was up to full strength for the battle. Nelson also lost Calder's flagship , the gun Prince of Wales , which he sent home as Calder had been recalled by the Admiralty to face a court martial for his apparent lack of aggression during the engagement off Cape Finisterre on 22 July.
Villeneuve's ships were also more than two thousand men short of the force needed to sail. These were not the only problems faced by the Franco-Spanish fleet.
The main French ships of the line had been kept in harbour for years by the British blockade with only brief sorties. The French crews included few experienced sailors, and, as most of the crew had to be taught the elements of seamanship on the few occasions when they got to sea, gunnery was neglected.
The hasty voyage across the Atlantic and back used up vital supplies. Villeneuve's supply situation began to improve in October, but news of Nelson's arrival made Villeneuve reluctant to leave port.
Indeed, his captains had held a vote on the matter and decided to stay in harbour. On 21 October, Admiral Nelson had 27 ships of the line under his command.
He also had four gun second rates and twenty third rates. One of the third rates was an gun vessel, and sixteen were gun vessels. The remaining three were gun ships, which were being phased out of the Royal Navy at the time of the battle.
Nelson also had four frigates of 38 or 36 guns, a gun schooner and a gun cutter. Against Nelson, Vice-Admiral Villeneuve—sailing on his flagship Bucentaure —fielded 33 ships of the line, including some of the largest in the world at the time.
The Spanish contributed four first-rates to the fleet. The fourth first-rate carried guns. The fleet had six gun third-rates, four French and two Spanish , and one Spanish gun third-rate.
The remaining 22 third-rates were gun vessels, of which fourteen were French and eight Spanish. In total, the Spanish contributed 15 ships of the line and the French The fleet also included five gun frigates and two gun brigs , all French.
The prevailing tactical orthodoxy at the time involved manoeuvring to approach the enemy fleet in a single line of battle and then engaging broadside in parallel lines.
One reason for the development of the line of battle system was to facilitate control of the fleet: Nelson's solution to the problem was to cut the opposing line in three.
Approaching in two columns, sailing perpendicular to the enemy's line, one towards the centre of the opposing line and one towards the trailing end, his ships would break the enemy formation into three, surround one third, and force them to fight to the end.
The plan had three principal advantages. First, the British fleet would close with the Franco-Spanish as quickly as possible, reducing the chance that they would be able to escape without fighting.
Nelson knew that the superior seamanship, faster gunnery and better morale of his crews were great advantages. The ships in the van of the enemy fleet would have to turn back to support the rear, which would take a long time.
The main drawback of attacking head-on was that as the leading British ships approached, the Franco-Spanish fleet would be able to direct raking broadside fire at their bows, to which they would be unable to reply.
To lessen the time the fleet was exposed to this danger, Nelson had his ships make all available sail including stuns'ls , yet another departure from the norm.
The Combined Fleet was sailing across a heavy swell , causing the ships to roll heavily and exacerbating the problem.
Nelson's plan was indeed a gamble, but a carefully calculated one. During the period of blockade off the coast of Spain in October, Nelson instructed his captains, over two dinners aboard Victory , on his plan for the approaching battle.
The order of sailing, in which the fleet was arranged when the enemy was first sighted, was to be the order of the ensuing action so that no time would be wasted in forming a precise line.
One, led by his second-in-command Vice-Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood , was to sail into the rear of the enemy line, while the other, led by Nelson, was to sail into the centre and vanguard.
In preparation for the battle, Nelson ordered the ships of his fleet to be painted in a distinctive yellow and black pattern later known as the Nelson Chequer that would make them easy to distinguish from their opponents.
Nelson was careful to point out that something had to be left to chance. Nothing is sure in a sea battle, so he left his captains free from all hampering rules by telling them that "No captain can do very wrong if he places his ship alongside that of the enemy.
Admiral Villeneuve himself expressed his belief that Nelson would use some sort of unorthodox attack, stating specifically that he believed—accurately—that Nelson would drive right at his line.
But his long game of cat and mouse with Nelson had worn him down, and he was suffering from a loss of nerve.
Arguing that the inexperience of his officers meant he would not be able to maintain formation in more than one group, he chose not to act on his assessment.
At first, Villeneuve was optimistic about returning to the Mediterranean, but soon had second thoughts. A war council was held aboard his flagship, Bucentaure , on 8 October.
At the same time, he received intelligence that a detachment of six British ships Admiral Louis' squadron , had docked at Gibraltar, thus weakening the British fleet.
This was used as the pretext for sudden change. The weather, however, suddenly turned calm following a week of gales.
This slowed the progress of the fleet leaving the harbour, giving the British plenty of warning. Villeneuve had drawn up plans to form a force of four squadrons, each containing both French and Spanish ships.
It took most of 20 October for Villeneuve to get his fleet organised; it eventually set sail in three columns for the Straits of Gibraltar to the southeast.
That same evening, Achille spotted a force of 18 British ships of the line in pursuit. The fleet began to prepare for battle and during the night, they were ordered into a single line.
The following day, Nelson's fleet of 27 ships of the line and four frigates was spotted in pursuit from the northwest with the wind behind it.
Villeneuve again ordered his fleet into three columns, but soon changed his mind and ordered a single line. The result was a sprawling, uneven formation.
This reversed the order of the allied line, placing the rear division under Rear-Admiral Pierre Dumanoir le Pelley in the vanguard.
The wind became contrary at this point, often shifting direction. The very light wind rendered manoeuvring virtually impossible for all but the most expert seamen.
The inexperienced crews had difficulty with the changing conditions, and it took nearly an hour and a half for Villeneuve's order to be completed.
The French and Spanish fleet now formed an uneven, angular crescent, with the slower ships generally to leeward and closer to the shore. Nelson's entire fleet was visible to Villeneuve, drawn up in two parallel columns.
The two fleets would be within range of each other within an hour. Villeneuve was concerned at this point about forming up a line, as his ships were unevenly spaced and in an irregular formation.
As the British drew closer, they could see that the enemy was not sailing in a tight order, but rather in irregular groups. Nelson could not immediately make out the French flagship as the French and Spanish were not flying command pennants.
Nelson was outnumbered and outgunned, the enemy totalling nearly 30, men and 2, guns to his 17, men and 2, guns.
The Franco-Spanish fleet also had six more ships of the line, and so could more readily combine their fire. There was no way for some of Nelson's ships to avoid being "doubled on" or even "trebled on".
As the two fleets drew closer, anxiety began to build among officers and sailors; one British sailor described the time before thus: The battle progressed largely according to Nelson's plan.
His Lordship came to me on the poop , and after ordering certain signals to be made, about a quarter to noon, he said, "Mr.
The term "England" was widely used at the time to refer to the United Kingdom; the British fleet included significant contingents from Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.
Unlike the photographic depiction right , this signal would have been shown on the mizzen mast only and would have required 12 lifts.
As the battle opened, the French and Spanish were in a ragged curved line headed north. As planned, the British fleet was approaching the Franco-Spanish line in two columns.
Leading the northern, windward column in Victory was Nelson, while Collingwood in the gun Royal Sovereign led the second, leeward, column.
The two British columns approached from the west at nearly a right angle to the allied line. Nelson led his column into a feint toward the van of the Franco-Spanish fleet and then abruptly turned toward the actual point of attack.
Collingwood altered the course of his column slightly so that the two lines converged at this line of attack. Just before his column engaged the allied forces, Collingwood said to his officers: At noon, Villeneuve sent the signal "engage the enemy", and Fougueux fired her first trial shot at Royal Sovereign.
As she approached the allied line, she came under fire from Fougueux , Indomptable , San Justo , and San Leandro , before breaking the line just astern of Admiral Alava's flagship Santa Ana , into which she fired a devastating double-shotted raking broadside.
Victory could not yet respond. Villeneuve thought that boarding would take place, and with the Eagle of his ship in hand, told his men, "I will throw it onto the enemy ship and we will take it back there!
The crew of Redoutable , which included a strong infantry corps with three captains and four lieutenants , gathered for an attempt to board and seize Victory.
A musket bullet fired from the mizzentop of Redoutable struck Nelson in the left shoulder, passed through his spine at the sixth and seventh thoracic vertebrae, and lodged two inches below his right scapula in the muscles of his back.
Nelson exclaimed, "They finally succeeded, I am dead. Victory' s gunners were called on deck to fight boarders, and she ceased firing. The gunners were forced back below decks by French grenades.
As the French were preparing to board Victory , Temeraire , the second ship in the British windward column, approached from the starboard bow of Redoutable and fired on the exposed French crew with a carronade , causing many casualties.
As more and more British ships entered the battle, the ships of the allied centre and rear were gradually overwhelmed.
The allied van, after long remaining quiescent, made a futile demonstration and then sailed away. The British took 22 vessels of the Franco-Spanish fleet and lost none.
As Nelson lay dying, he ordered the fleet to anchor, as a storm was predicted. However, when the storm blew up, many of the severely damaged ships sank or ran aground on the shoals.
Surgeon William Beatty heard Nelson murmur, "Thank God I have done my duty"; when he returned, Nelson's voice had faded, and his pulse was very weak.
Nelson's chaplain, Alexander Scott , who remained by Nelson as he died, recorded his last words as "God and my country. Nelson died at half-past four, three hours after being hit.
Towards the end of the battle, and with the combined fleet being overwhelmed, the still relatively un-engaged portion of the van under Rear-Admiral Dumanoir Le Pelley tried to come to the assistance of the collapsing centre.
After failing to fight his way through, he decided to break off the engagement, and led four French ships, his flagship the gun Formidable , the gun ships Scipion , Duguay Trouin and Mont Blanc away from the fighting.
He headed at first for the Straits of Gibraltar, intending to carry out Villeneuve's original orders and make for Toulon. With a storm gathering in strength off the Spanish coast, he sailed westwards to clear Cape St Vincent , prior to heading north-west, swinging eastwards across the Bay of Biscay , and aiming to reach the French port at Rochefort.
The seriously wounded Admiral Gravina passed command of the remainder of the fleet over to Captain Julien Cosmao on 23 October.
From shore, the allied commanders could see an opportunity for a rescue mission existed. Cosmao claimed in his report that the rescue plan was entirely his idea, but Vice-Admiral Escano recorded a meeting of Spanish and French Commodores at which a planned rescue was discussed and agreed upon.
Enrique MacDonell and Cosmao were of equal rank and both raised commodore's pennants before hoisting anchor. Soon after leaving port, the wind shifted to west-southwest, raising a heavy sea with the result that most of the British prizes broke their tow ropes, and drifting far to leeward , were only partially resecured.
The combined squadron came in sight at noon, causing Collingwood to summon his most battle-ready ships to meet the threat.
In doing so, he ordered them to cast off towing their prizes. He had formed a defensive line of ten ships by three o'clock in the afternoon and approached the Franco-Spanish squadron, covering the remainder of their prizes which stood out to sea.
Despite this initial success the Franco-Spanish force, hampered by battle damage, struggled in the heavy seas.
Neptuno was eventually wrecked off Rota in the gale, while Santa Ana reached port. There, she lost her masts; they had been damaged by shot earlier.
Observing that some of the leewardmost of the prizes were escaping towards the Spanish coast, Leviathan asked for and was granted permission by Collingwood to try to retrieve the prizes and bring them to anchor.
The shot fell between Monarca and Rayo. The latter, conceiving that it was probably intended for her, hauled down her colours, and was taken by HMS Donegal , who anchored alongside and took off the prisoners.
On boarding her, her British captors found that she was in a sinking state, and so removed the British prize crew, and nearly all of her original Spanish crew members.
The nearly empty Monarca parted her cable and was wrecked during the night. Despite the efforts of her British prize crew, Rayo was driven onshore on 26 October and wrecked, with the loss of twenty-five men.
The remainder of the prize crew were made prisoners by the Spanish. The condition of our own ships was such that it was very doubtful what would be their fate.
Many a time I would have given the whole group of our capture, to ensure our own I can only say that in my life I never saw such efforts as were made to save these [prize] ships, and would rather fight another battle than pass through such a week as followed it.
On balance, the allied counter-attack achieved little. In forcing the British to suspend their repairs to defend themselves, it influenced Collingwood's decision to sink or set fire to the most damaged of his remaining prizes.
Spanish military garrisons and civilians set out to rescue survivors from the numerous shipwrecks scattered along the Andalusian coast.
British prize crews were captured and given good treatment. The governor and Gravina offered in exchange to release their British prisoners, who boarded the British fleet.
The French would later join this humanitarian agreement. When Rosily arrived in Cadiz, he found only five French ships, rather than the 18 he was expecting.
The surviving ships remained bottled up in Cadiz until when Napoleon invaded Spain. The French ships were then seized by the Spanish forces and put into service against France.
She put into Rosia Bay, Gibraltar and after emergency repairs were carried out, returned to Britain. Many of the injured crew were brought ashore at Gibraltar and treated in the Naval Hospital.
Men who subsequently died from injuries sustained at the battle are buried in or near the Trafalgar Cemetery , at the south end of Main Street, Gibraltar.
He had tight control over the Paris media and kept the defeat a closely guarded secret for over a month, at which point newspapers proclaimed it to have been a tremendous victory.
Vice-Admiral Villeneuve was taken prisoner aboard his flagship and taken back to Britain. After his parole in , he returned to France, where he was found dead in his inn room during a stop on the way to Paris, with six stab wounds in the chest from a dining knife.
A prolonged British naval presence in Naples was useful in supporting the shaky military strength of King Ferdinand , the one major ruler in Italy to be resisting the southward march of the French, who had already taken Rome and deposed the pope.
The love affair that developed between Nelson and Emma Hamilton came at a time of crisis. Not only was this a disastrous failure but the French counteroffensive drove him back to Naples, which itself then fell.
Nelson had to evacuate the Neapolitan royal family to Sicily, and at Palermo it became obvious to all that his infatuation with Emma Hamilton was complete.
She had proved herself indispensable company to him. Nelson was ordered to that island with all available ships but refused on the grounds that he expected the threat to be toward Naples.
Events justified him, but to disobey orders so blatantly was unforgivable. The Admiralty, also angered by his acceptance of the dukedom of Bronte in Sicily from King Ferdinand, sent him an icy order to return home.
In he returned, but across the continent in company with the Hamiltons. Nelson was promoted to vice admiral in January Emma was pregnant by him when he was appointed second in command to the elderly admiral Sir Hyde Parker, who was to command an expedition to the Baltic.
Shortly before sailing, Nelson heard that Emma had borne him a daughter named Horatia. The next morning, April 2, he led his squadron into action.
There was to be no room for tactical brilliance; only superior gunnery would tell. The Danes resisted bravely, and Parker, fearing that Nelson was suffering unacceptable losses, hoisted the signal to disengage.
Nelson disregarded it, and, an hour later, victory was his; the Danish ships lay shattered and silent, their losses amounting to some 6, dead and wounded, six times heavier than those of the British.
Before this success could be followed by similar attacks on the other potential enemies, Tsar Paul of Russia died and the threat faded.
Parker was succeeded by Nelson, who at last became a commander in chief. He was also made a viscount.
The Admiralty, well aware of his popular appeal, now made maximum use of it by giving him a home command. At once he planned an ambitious attack on the naval base of Boulogne in order to foil a possible French invasion.
He did not take part himself, and the operation was a gory failure. A second attempt was abandoned because of peace negotiations with France, and in March the Treaty of Amiens was signed.
At last there was time to enjoy the fruits of his victories. At last her husband rebelled, but it was too late for change, and he appeared reconciled to his lot when, early in , he died with his wife and her lover at his side.
Bonaparte was known to be preparing for renewed war, and, two days before it broke out, Nelson, in May , was given command in the Mediterranean, hoisting his flag in the Victory.
A combined force of that size could well enable Bonaparte to invade England; and in early , Napoleon, who the previous year had crowned himself emperor, ordered the fleets to converge for this purpose.
The French and Spanish squadrons were to burst through the British blockade; run for the West Indies; and after ravaging British possessions and trade, return across the Atlantic in a single invincible fleet to destroy the British near Ushant, an island off Brittany, and take control of the English Channel while it was crossed by an invading army of , In March, Admiral Pierre Villeneuve , who was to be in overall command, broke out of Toulon under cover of bad weather and disappeared.
Nelson set off in pursuit. Villeneuve cut short his marauding, but his fleet was intercepted and damaged by a British squadron. When his orders came, Nelson on September 15 sailed in the Victory.
He was now at the height of his professional powers. Worshiped by his officers and sailors alike, he was confident that his captains understood his tactical thinking so well that the minimum of consultation would be required.
He planned to advance on the Franco-Spanish fleets in two divisions to break their line and destroy them piecemeal. This was the final abandonment of the traditionally rigid tactics of fighting in line of battle.
At dawn next day, the Franco-Spanish fleets were silhouetted against the sunrise off Cape Trafalgar, and the British began to form the two divisions in which they were to fight, one led by Nelson, the other by Collingwood.
He was carried below to the surgeon, and it was soon clear that he was dying. Thank God, I have done my duty.
A country racked with grief gave him a majestic funeral in St. Emma Hamilton and his daughter, however, were ignored.
Emma died, almost destitute , in Calais nine years later. Nelson had finally broken the unimaginative strategic and tactical doctrines of the previous century and taught individual officers to think for themselves.
His flair and forcefulness as a commander in battle were decisive factors in his two major victories—the battles of the Nile and Trafalgar. In the former, he had destroyed the French fleet upon which Napoleon Bonaparte had based his hopes of Eastern conquest, and in the latter he had destroyed the combined French and Spanish fleets, thus ensuring the safety of the British Isles from invasion and the supremacy of British sea power for more than a century.
Spectacular success in battle, combined with his humanity as a commander and his scandalous private life, raised Nelson to godlike status in his lifetime, and after his death at Trafalgar in , he was enshrined in popular myth and iconography.
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